Author Archives: sitapest

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mosquito dengue

Cause of Dengue fever

Category : Pest Control

Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.

Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally A. aegypti. The virus has five different types; infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. As there is no commercially available vaccine, prevention is sought by reducing the habitat and the number of mosquitoes and limiting exposure to bites.

Treatment of acute dengue is supportive, using either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease, and intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. The number of cases of dengue fever has increased dramatically since the 1960s, with between 50 and 528 million people infected yearly. Early descriptions of the condition date from 1779, and its viral cause and transmission were understood by the early 20th century. Dengue has become a global problem since the Second World War and is endemic in more than 110 countries. Apart from eliminating the mosquitoes, work is ongoing on a dengue vaccine, as well as medication targeted directly at the virus.

Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, particularly A. aegypti. These mosquitoes usually live between the latitudes of 35° North and 35° South below an elevation of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). They typically bite during the day, particularly in the early morning and in the evening, but they are able to bite and thus spread infection at any time of day all during the year. Other Aedes species that transmit the disease include A. albopictus, A. polynesiensis and A. scutellaris. Humans are the primary host of the virus, but it also circulates in nonhuman primates. An infection can be acquired via a single bite. A female mosquito that takes a blood meal from a person infected with dengue fever, during the initial 2–10 day febrile period, becomes itself infected with the virus in the cells lining its gut. About 8–10 days later, the virus spreads to other tissues including the mosquito’s salivary glands and is subsequently released into its saliva. The virus seems to have no detrimental effect on the mosquito, which remains infected for life. Aedes aegypti is particularly involved, as it prefers to lay its eggs in artificial water containers, to live in close proximity to humans, and to feed on people rather than other vertebrates.
Dengue-fever-720x380Dengue can also be transmitted via infected blood products and through organ donation. In countries such as Singapore, where dengue is endemic, the risk is estimated to be between 1.6 and 6 per 10,000 transfusions. Vertical transmission (from mother to child) during pregnancy or at birth has been reported. Other person-to-person modes of transmission have also been reported, but are very unusual. The genetic variation in dengue viruses is region specific, suggestive that establishment into new territories is relatively infrequent, despite dengue emerging in new regions in recent decades.

 

Mechanism
When a mosquito carrying dengue virus bites a person, the virus enters the skin together with the mosquito’s saliva. It binds to and enters white blood cells, and reproduces inside the cells while they move throughout the body. The white blood cells respond by producing a number of signaling proteins, such as cytokines and interferons, which are responsible for many of the symptoms, such as the fever, the flu-like symptoms and the severe pains. In severe infection, the virus production inside the body is greatly increased, and many more organs (such as the liver and the bone marrow) can be affected. Fluid from the bloodstream leaks through the wall of small blood vessels into body cavities due to capillary permeability. As a result, less blood circulates in the blood vessels, and the blood pressure becomes so low that it cannot supply sufficient blood to vital organs. Furthermore, dysfunction of the bone marrow due to infection of the stromal cells leads to reduced numbers of platelets, which are necessary for effective blood clotting; this increases the risk of bleeding, the other major complication of dengue fever.

Viral replication
Once inside the skin, dengue virus binds to Langerhans cells (a population of dendritic cells in the skin that identifies pathogens). The virus enters the cells through binding between viral proteins and membrane proteins on the Langerhans cell, specifically the C-type lectins called DC-SIGN, mannose receptor and CLEC5A.DC-SIGN, a non-specific receptor for foreign material on dendritic cells, seems to be the main point of entry. The dendritic cell moves to the nearest lymph node. Meanwhile, the virus genome is translated in membrane-bound vesicles on the cell’s endoplasmic reticulum, where the cell’s protein synthesis apparatus produces new viral proteins that replicate the viral RNA and begin to form viral particles. Immature virus particles are transported to the Golgi apparatus, the part of the cell where some of the proteins receive necessary sugar chains (glycoproteins). The now mature new viruses bud on the surface of the infected cell and are released by exocytosis. They are then able to enter other white blood cells, such as monocytes and macrophages.

The initial reaction of infected cells is to produce interferon, a cytokine that raises a number of defenses against viral infection through the innate immune system by augmenting the production of a large group of proteins mediated by the JAK-STAT pathway. Some serotypes of dengue virus appear to have mechanisms to slow down this process. Interferon also activates the adaptive immune system, which leads to the generation of antibodies against the virus as well as T cells that directly attack any cell infected with the virus. Various antibodies are generated; some bind closely to the viral proteins and target them for phagocytosis (ingestion by specialized cells and destruction), but some bind the virus less well and appear instead to deliver the virus into a part of the phagocytes where it is not destroyed but is able to replicate further.


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pest-prevention

The Importance of Pest Prevention

Category : Pest Control

When you wake to a cockroach scurrying under the door or come home to a line of ants parading through the kitchen, the need for pest control is evident. But what about those bugs and insects that make their way into your home unnoticed? In this article, we will explore the importance of preventing Huntersville pests, rather than having to treat the problem later.

What pests are likely to take up residence in my home?
In Huntersville, common household pests include anything from the brown-banded cockroach to the more threatening brown recluse spider. While the level of threat varies among these different species, you probably don’t want your family exposed to anything of the sort. Professional pest control technicians can make sure you’re home is well-protected.

Why is preventive pest control important?
Pest prevention in Huntersville is crucial to the health and wellness of your family. Known to carry harmful bacteria that can cause illnesses, pests can transmit diseases by way of contact with anything from your food supply to your toothbrush. Since they don’t often leave physical evidence behind, you might not even realize your home is infested until you have already been exposed to any of pathogens that trigger asthmatic reactions or illnesses like Salmonella or E. Coli.

What about DIY pest control?
When it comes to treating your home for pests, it’s important to hire a professional to make sure you are getting the safest, most effective solution. Storebought formulas can be accidentally overapplied, putting your family at risk of unnecessary chemical exposure. Many pest control companies provide reduced-risk, organic options. However, in addition to using the help of a professional, there are several things you can do to prevent pest problems in your home:

  • Seal cracks and crevices in exterior walls to prevent pest entry.
  • Add drain covers to your sinks and showers.
  • Screen your windows as an added barrier from the outdoors.
  • Trim back shrubbery and trees from the exterior of your home.
  • If you are interested in learning more about preventive pest control, or would like to schedule your free same-day inspection, go ahead and give us a call!

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termite-for-blog-720x380

Super Termites

Category : Pest Control

A hybrid colony of Coptotermes termites. A king C. gestroi (nutty-brown abdomen) is shown on the left, and a queen C. formosanus(orange abdomen) on the right. They are surrounded by their hybrid offspring, including eggs, larvae, workers, and soldiers. Photo by Thomas Chouvenc, University of Florida /IFA.

Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus) and Asian subterranean termites (Coptotermes gestroi) are the most damaging pest species in the world. Both are highly invasive and have spread throughout many areas of the world due to human activity, and their distributions overlap in some areas.

Now scientists in Florida have observed Formosan males mating with Asian females — in fact, they seem to prefer the Asian females more than females from their own species — and their hybrid offspring seem to grow colonies twice as fast as their parents.

Many hybrids are unable to reproduce (the mule, for example, which is the sterile hybrid offspring of a male donkey and a female horse). And many hybrids that actually can reproduce tend to lose vigor after one or more generations, which is why farmers often buy new hybrid seeds each growing season.

But so far that doesn’t seem to be the case for these termite hybrids. In the laboratory, the Florida researchers are raising a hybrid colony that is growing twice as fast as same-species colonies, suggesting a potential case of hybrid vigor.


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bed bugs

Bed Bugs And Disease – What You Didn’t Know

Category : Pest Control

These tiny brown insects feed on humans and animals alike. However, they are much more than annoying little bugs. Much like mosquitoes, there is plenty of concern that bed bugs can transmit diseases as they bite by transferring blood from person to person. These bugs can transmit deadly parasites and can lead to a number of issues if not promptly addressed. Here are some examples of diseases/conditions that can possibly be spread by these pests.

Chagas Disease

Chagas disease causes a number of different conditions, and depending on the severity, the disease can be fatal. It can also damage the heart causing fatal heart disease later in life. Fever and inflammation are common as are enlargement of the liver and spleen. The infected area will also swell. If left untreated, the condition can become chronic and impossible to get rid of. This happens as the bed bug introduced Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasite, through their feces. There is evidence that bed bugs can effectively transmit Chagas disease to live mice which leads to the question: Can bed bugs transmit Chagas to humans? Thankfully, there are no documented cases of bed bug related transmission of Chagas to humans as of yet, but experts have projected that it is still too early to completely rule out the possibility of transmission.

Allergic Reactions

Allergic reactions are common when it comes to bed bug bites. While this isn’t a disease, severe allergic reactions can be just as deadly. Symptoms of an allergic reaction may include rashes, itching and swelling in the bitten area. Severe allergic reactions can lead to fatal anaphylaxis. It is important to speak with your doctor about treatment for any allergic reactions brought on by bed bug bites, and it’s even more important to remove the bed bugs from your home to prevent future problems.

HIV Transmission?

Not yet thankfully. Because bed bugs may bite multiple people or animals over the course of their lifespan, there is always the concern that they will transmit HIV. Bed bugs have tested positive for diseases like hepatitis B, but information is inconclusive about whether or not they can spread the disease to humans. In controlled laboratory settings, there has been no evidence of HIV or Hepatitis B transmission between infected bed bugs. Bed bugs are also known for carrying diseases like MRSA that are unlikely to spread to humans.

The Risk of Disease from Bed Bugs

Whenever bed bugs are found in the home, it is important that they are treated right away. As the colony grows, the potential risk for disease transmission also grows. Diseases can be spread through the saliva that comes in contact with the skin when the bug bites, or through the feces that is left behind. Dealing with the outbreak in a swift manner can reduce your personal risk. Contact a local pest control company today to help you eliminate the bed bug problem in your home and learn preventative techniques you can use in the home.

Removal

At any rate, it’s safe to say bed bugs have no place in our homes. If you suspect bed bug infestation anywhere in your home, contact a qualified bed bug removal company that uses a combination of heat, vacuuming, and light pesticide to kill bed bug harborages. Heat treatment is the single best method for eradicating bed bugs and number one EPA recommended approach to successfully ending bed bug infestations.


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Cockroach Control Treatment

Category : Pest Control

The German cockroach is one of the most common roaches found in apartment houses, restaurants, and hotels. German cockroaches (eggs included), are “brought in”, usually on man’s belongings, luggage, boxes or packages.

All it takes is bringing in one egg capsule, six months later you have an infestation.

German Roach Control & Treatments
German Roaches & Sanitation
When beginning your German roach control program, sanitation is one of the first things to consider. German roaches only need a small amount of food to sustain them.

Remove indoor trash or keep them emptied.
Keep trash dumpsters clean.
Make sure food is not left in sink stainers and frequently run the garbage disposal.
Keep dishes clean, no residue of food remaining.
All kitchen appliances (microwaves, toasters, ovens, refrigerators and stoves) should be maintained in a clean condition so that it is food free and grease free.
All pet food needs to be picked up.
No food left out.
Sweeping or vacuuming of any food particles or crumbs.
Clean any crumbs or food particles in your kitchen cabinets.
Inspection : Look for Evidence
When inspecting for German cockroaches, thoroughness is very important. It is important to place the insecticides as close to their runways and harborages as possible. Their excrement looks like black pepper.

A flashlight would be a handy tool to check the following places.

Cracks and Crevices
Behind and under refrigerators
Behind and under stoves
Behind and under microwavesa and toasters
Under tops of tables
Behind and under sinks
Cabinets-corners and cracks and crevices
Motors of refrigerators and soft drink dispensing machines
Switchboxes and electical outlets
Under and behind cafeteria counters and soda fountains
Cash registers
Telephones
Vegetable bins
Recycling bins
Meat counters and check-out stands
Meat cutting blocks
Anywhere else conditions are favorable.
Every situation may be different, inspect all places with favorable conditions


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rat leptos

What causes leptospirosis?

Category : Pest Control

rat leptosThe cause of leptospirosis is bacteria, Leptospira interrogans, a Gram-negative spirochete (spiral-shaped bacteria). The bacteria infect many types of animals (many wild animals, rodents, dogs, cats, pigs, horses, cattle, for example) that subsequently contaminate water, soil, and crops when they urinate because the bacteria are present in urine. The bacteria then infect humans when they invade through breaks in the skin or mucus membranes or when people ingest them. The bacteria multiply in the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Person-to-person transfer of this disease is rare.

What are risk factors for leptospirosis?

Risk factors include occupations that expose people to farm animals, wild animals, and to contaminated water and soil (farmers, slaughterhouse workers, veterinarians, miners, military personnel, disaster workers and victims, for example). People who participate in outdoor activities like camping or kayaking are also at higher risk for infection. Any exposure to sewage or animal waste increases risk of getting leptospirosis

What are leptospirosis symptoms and signs?

Unfortunately, the symptoms and signs of leptospirosis are variable and are similar to those seen in many other diseases (dengue fever, hantavirus, brucellosis, malaria, and others). Symptoms can arise about two days to four weeks after exposure to the bacteria. Although some people have no symptoms, others may exhibit one or more of the following: high fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, rash, and reddish eyes. These symptoms usually occur in the first phase of the infection, and when present, they often occur abruptly. Some patients resolve their symptoms and do not progress to the second phase; others may seem to briefly recover but relapse with more severe symptoms and organ damage. This is the second phase of leptospirosis, called Weil’s disease. If it’s not treated, it may not resolve for several months. The death rate is about 1%-5%.


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mosquito dengue

Dengue Prevention Tips

Category : Pest Control

It’s important to prevent mosquitoes from breeding both inside and outside your home.



Inside the home, disease-causing mosquitoes commonly breed in ornamental and other containers, plant pot trays and plates, and canvas sheets/plastic sheets. Outside the home, mosquitoes can breed in perimeter drains, gully traps and discarded containers.

“It’s important to take precautions inside and outside your home to prevent mosquito breeding and contribute to dengue prevention.

 

You can take the following precautions to protect your home from mosquitoes:

Daily

Use insecticide sprays in dark corners (under the bed, sofa and behind curtains) and burn repellent oils inside your home
Turn over all water storage containers when empty and store them under a shelter
Cover bamboo pole holders when not in use
Loosen soil in potted plants to prevent accumulation of stagnant water on surface

Alternate days

Change water in vases/bowls
Remove water from flower/plant pot plates
Weekly

Clear fallen leaves and stagnant water in scupper drains and in the garden
Clear any stagnant water in air cooler units

Monthly

Clear fallen leaves and other blockages in roof gutters
Use sand granular insecticide in gully traps and roof gutters


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daga

Rodent Prevention

Category : Pest Control

If you are trying hard to clean your attic of the army of rodents, then it’s time that you think about getting some professional help through a good rodent prevention company. Rodent prevention is not just a one line command, which requires only one line of instructions to be followed seriously to stop attic rodents. There is more to that. It’s actually a step by step process that needs to be done strategically to get the desired results.

Disappointing results from incomplete cleaning

Suppose you clear you attic off the rodents, and expect to get no more rodents inside in future. You will be utterly disappointed with the results, as all your cleaning efforts will go to vain, once a new family of rodents infests the attic once again. And this is a result of leftovers of the earlier infestation. You will need to stop attic rodents by cleaning the attic off all the remnants of the last infestation, stool and urine of rodents, any carcasses if present.

 

The role of a good rodent prevention company

A good rodent prevention company would thus do the job of cleaning in a well protected, safe method in a stepwise manner.

  • They will clean the attic of rodents.
  • They will clean all rodent feces, urine, carcasses, and food leftovers.
  • They will clean the place of all molds and rots that may invite other rodents.
  • They will find all opening in the attic and the house and will seal them such that no more rodents can make their way in.

This way they will stop attic rodents, and because of their systematic rodent prevention methods. They abide by all safety laws and tips to keep their men safe from germs and diseases, and you get such service only when you get a professional rodent prevention company service.

How to get professional help

To get professional rodent prevention in your locality, you should knock your friends and relatives to get references. You should also check websites and classifieds to get more knowledge. On getting info about a good company, you may contact them for rodent prevention by requesting a quote from them.

Your house location, size of attic, age of home all will affect the package you will have to pay to the company. Once you get your attic cleaned by a full professional team, you will never have the problem of another attack by rodents.